Top 7 killer diseases in the world

1. Ischemic heart disease, or coronary artery disease

cardiovascular diseases or CVDs is the number one killer disease in the world. The annual death toll from the deadly disease is estimated at 17.9 million. CVDs are a class of heart and blood vessel disorders that also include coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and other conditions. One-third of CVD deaths occur prematurely under the age of 70 years while four out of 5CVD deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes.

Globally, coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death with an estimated 3.8 million men and 3.4 million women are dying each year from CHD1.

Risk factors and prevention
The risk factors for coronary artery disease include high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, family history, crossing the age of 45 for men, and being post-menopausal for women.

Prevention of the diseases could be by lifestyle changes, including habits like eating lower sodium, a lower-fat diet, maintaining healthy body weight, refrain from smoking and alcohol, and increasing physical activity. Other prevention would be medicines to treat risk factors of CAD-like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or irregular heartbeat.

2. Stroke

Each year, 15 million people suffer stroke globally every year as per WHO. Out of these 5 million people do not live while another 5 million are disabled permanently. Worldwide more than 12 million strokes are a result of high blood pressure.

Risk factors and prevention

The risk factors for stroke include the following:
High blood pressure
Conditions of heart and blood vessel diseases that can cause blood clots or blockages include carotid artery disease, coronary heart disease, heart valve disease, and atrial fibrillation.
High LDL cholesterol
Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations
Viral Infections or conditions that cause inflammation

Prevention for stroke would include:
Diabetes control
Control high blood pressure.
Maintaining a healthy weight.
Quitting tobacco.
Eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
Moderate alcohol consumption.

3. Lower respiratory infections

Lower respiratory tract infections cause around 4 million deaths every year as per an estimate. It forms a leading cause of death among children under 5 years old.

Risk factors and prevention
Low birth weight.
Indoor air pollution exposure.
Incomplete immunization.

4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a class of progressive lung diseases,  chronic bronchitis and emphysema is the most common.

In 2015, more than 3.17 million estimated deaths were caused by the disease globally. This number was 5% of all deaths globally in that year. The situation in 2020 is much worse and is growing rapidly. In low and middle-income countries the COPD death numbers are over 90%.

Risk factors and prevention
One of the biggest risk factors for COPD is smoking both for death as well as for development. Over 90% of COPD cases are due to smoking. While female smokers are 13 times more likely to die from COPD viz-a-viz 12 times men. This number is compared to people who are non-smokers.

Apart from smoking other risk factors include the following:
Passive smoking.
Exposure to dust, fumes, and chemical.
Exposure to air pollution.
A history of childhood respiratory infection
Alpha-1 deficiency—a genetic disorder

Since smoking is the biggest risk factor, keeping away from smoking and passive smoking remains the most important way to prevent COPD.

5. Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers
With a death toll of 1.74 million people, lung diseases, especially lung cancer is one of the leading cause of death. Worldwide, this number is expected to increase to 2.89 million by 2030.

Risk Factors

The number one risk factor of lung cancer is tobacco smoking.
Passive smoking.
Exposure to chemical element radon.
Exposure to cancer-causing agents.
Asbestos exposure.
Radiation therapy was done to the lungs previously.
Exposure to Arsenic in drinking water.

Quit smoking
Get a regular checkup done
Refrain from passive smoking
Limit your exposure to radiation and chemicals

6. Diabetes mellitus
Worldwide, about 422 million people suffer from diabetes. Of that majority live in low-and middle-income countries. 1.6 million deaths are directly related to diabetes every year. Both the prevalence of the disease and the number of cases have been steadily on the rise over the past few decades.

Risk factor
Sedentary lifestyle.
Family history.
Gestational diabetes.
Age factor.
High blood pressure.
Polycystic ovary syndrome.

Prevention from the dreaded disease could be done by practicing the following:
Cut sugar intake.
Drink lots of water.
Cut on refined carbs.
Daily workout.
Quit Smoking.
Lose Weight.
Avoid a sedentary life.
Have a Low-carb diet.

7. Alzheimer’s
Over 50 million people suffer from dementia while there are around 10 million new cases every year. Alzheimer’s disease contributes to 60-70% of cases is the most common form of dementia.

Some of the risk factors for the disease include:
Cardiovascular disease.
Down’s syndrome.
Family history.
Head injuries.

Stop smoking.
Eat a healthy, balanced diet, including fruits and vegetables.
Minimum alcohol intake.
Keep your blood pressure under control.
Your diabetes should be under control.

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